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Jetpack学习-WorkManager

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Jetpack学习-WorkManager

WorkManager是什么

WorkManager可以轻松调度即使在应用退出或设备重启时仍应运行的可延迟异步任务,不适用于应用进程结束时能够安全终止的运行中的后台工作,也不适用于需要立即执行的任务。

简单使用

引入WorkManager

在需要引入WorkManager的模块的build.gradle中,增加以下配置

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def work_version = "2.3.1"
implementation "androidx.work:work-runtime:$work_version"

定义Worker

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public class UploadWorker extends Worker {

public UploadWorker(@NonNull Context context, @NonNull WorkerParameters workerParams) {
super(context, workerParams);
}

@NonNull
@Override
public Result doWork() {
Log.i(MainActivity.TAG, "doWork");
return Result.success();
}
}

继承自Worker,并重写doWork方法

执行任务

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OneTimeWorkRequest request = new OneTimeWorkRequest.Builder(UploadWorker.class).build();
WorkManager.getInstance(getApplicationContext()).enqueue(request);

简单使用就到这里,具体的用法可以在官方文档上查看。

原理

下面来看下WorkManager的原理。

首先通过WorkManager.getInstance获取到WorkManager的实例

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public static @NonNull WorkManager getInstance(@NonNull Context context) {
return WorkManagerImpl.getInstance(context);
}

可以看到,内部是调用WorkManagerImpl.getInstance

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public static @NonNull WorkManagerImpl getInstance(@NonNull Context context) {
synchronized (sLock) {
WorkManagerImpl instance = getInstance();
if (instance == null) {
Context appContext = context.getApplicationContext();
if (appContext instanceof Configuration.Provider) {
initialize(
appContext,
((Configuration.Provider) appContext).getWorkManagerConfiguration());
instance = getInstance(appContext);
} else {
throw new IllegalStateException("WorkManager is not initialized properly. You "
+ "have explicitly disabled WorkManagerInitializer in your manifest, "
+ "have not manually called WorkManager#initialize at this point, and "
+ "your Application does not implement Configuration.Provider.");
}
}

return instance;
}
}

在这里实例化。

再来看下执行过程enqueue

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public final Operation enqueue(@NonNull WorkRequest workRequest) {
return enqueue(Collections.singletonList(workRequest));
}

调用WorkManagerImplenqueue

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public Operation enqueue(
@NonNull List<? extends WorkRequest> workRequests) {

// This error is not being propagated as part of the Operation, as we want the
// app to crash during development. Having no workRequests is always a developer error.
if (workRequests.isEmpty()) {
throw new IllegalArgumentException(
"enqueue needs at least one WorkRequest.");
}
return new WorkContinuationImpl(this, workRequests).enqueue();
}

调用enqueue方法

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public @NonNull Operation enqueue() {
// Only enqueue if not already enqueued.
if (!mEnqueued) {
// The runnable walks the hierarchy of the continuations
// and marks them enqueued using the markEnqueued() method, parent first.
EnqueueRunnable runnable = new EnqueueRunnable(this);
mWorkManagerImpl.getWorkTaskExecutor().executeOnBackgroundThread(runnable);
mOperation = runnable.getOperation();
} else {
Logger.get().warning(TAG,
String.format("Already enqueued work ids (%s)", TextUtils.join(", ", mIds)));
}
return mOperation;
}

enqueue方法会通过TaskExecutorexecuteOnBackgroundThread方法来执行到EnqueueRunnablerun

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public void run() {
try {
if (mWorkContinuation.hasCycles()) {
throw new IllegalStateException(
String.format("WorkContinuation has cycles (%s)", mWorkContinuation));
}
boolean needsScheduling = addToDatabase();
if (needsScheduling) {
// Enable RescheduleReceiver, only when there are Worker's that need scheduling.
final Context context =
mWorkContinuation.getWorkManagerImpl().getApplicationContext();
PackageManagerHelper.setComponentEnabled(context, RescheduleReceiver.class, true);
scheduleWorkInBackground();
}
mOperation.setState(Operation.SUCCESS);
} catch (Throwable exception) {
mOperation.setState(new Operation.State.FAILURE(exception));
}
}

执行scheduleWorkInBackground

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public void scheduleWorkInBackground() {
WorkManagerImpl workManager = mWorkContinuation.getWorkManagerImpl();
Schedulers.schedule(
workManager.getConfiguration(),
workManager.getWorkDatabase(),
workManager.getSchedulers());
}

执行schedule

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public static void schedule(
@NonNull Configuration configuration,
@NonNull WorkDatabase workDatabase,
List<Scheduler> schedulers) {
if (schedulers == null || schedulers.size() == 0) {
return;
}

WorkSpecDao workSpecDao = workDatabase.workSpecDao();
List<WorkSpec> eligibleWorkSpecs;

workDatabase.beginTransaction();
try {
eligibleWorkSpecs = workSpecDao.getEligibleWorkForScheduling(
configuration.getMaxSchedulerLimit());
if (eligibleWorkSpecs != null && eligibleWorkSpecs.size() > 0) {
long now = System.currentTimeMillis();

// Mark all the WorkSpecs as scheduled.
// Calls to Scheduler#schedule() could potentially result in more schedules
// on a separate thread. Therefore, this needs to be done first.
for (WorkSpec workSpec : eligibleWorkSpecs) {
workSpecDao.markWorkSpecScheduled(workSpec.id, now);
}
}
workDatabase.setTransactionSuccessful();
} finally {
workDatabase.endTransaction();
}

if (eligibleWorkSpecs != null && eligibleWorkSpecs.size() > 0) {
WorkSpec[] eligibleWorkSpecsArray = eligibleWorkSpecs.toArray(new WorkSpec[0]);
// Delegate to the underlying scheduler.
for (Scheduler scheduler : schedulers) {
scheduler.schedule(eligibleWorkSpecsArray);
}
}
}

这个方法里,将任务信息保存到了数据库。然后执行scheduler.schedule方法。它的实现在GreedyScheduler

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public void schedule(@NonNull WorkSpec... workSpecs) {
if (mIsMainProcess == null) {
// The default process name is the package name.
mIsMainProcess = TextUtils.equals(mContext.getPackageName(), getProcessName());
}

if (!mIsMainProcess) {
Logger.get().info(TAG, "Ignoring schedule request in non-main process");
return;
}

registerExecutionListenerIfNeeded();

// Keep track of the list of new WorkSpecs whose constraints need to be tracked.
// Add them to the known list of constrained WorkSpecs and call replace() on
// WorkConstraintsTracker. That way we only need to synchronize on the part where we
// are updating mConstrainedWorkSpecs.
List<WorkSpec> constrainedWorkSpecs = new ArrayList<>();
List<String> constrainedWorkSpecIds = new ArrayList<>();
for (WorkSpec workSpec : workSpecs) {
if (workSpec.state == WorkInfo.State.ENQUEUED
&& !workSpec.isPeriodic()
&& workSpec.initialDelay == 0L
&& !workSpec.isBackedOff()) {
if (workSpec.hasConstraints()) {
if (SDK_INT >= 23 && workSpec.constraints.requiresDeviceIdle()) {
// Ignore requests that have an idle mode constraint.
Logger.get().debug(TAG,
String.format("Ignoring WorkSpec %s, Requires device idle.",
workSpec));
} else if (SDK_INT >= 24 && workSpec.constraints.hasContentUriTriggers()) {
// Ignore requests that have content uri triggers.
Logger.get().debug(TAG,
String.format("Ignoring WorkSpec %s, Requires ContentUri triggers.",
workSpec));
} else {
constrainedWorkSpecs.add(workSpec);
constrainedWorkSpecIds.add(workSpec.id);
}
} else {
Logger.get().debug(TAG, String.format("Starting work for %s", workSpec.id));
mWorkManagerImpl.startWork(workSpec.id);
}
}
}

// onExecuted() which is called on the main thread also modifies the list of mConstrained
// WorkSpecs. Therefore we need to lock here.
synchronized (mLock) {
if (!constrainedWorkSpecs.isEmpty()) {
Logger.get().debug(TAG, String.format("Starting tracking for [%s]",
TextUtils.join(",", constrainedWorkSpecIds)));
mConstrainedWorkSpecs.addAll(constrainedWorkSpecs);
mWorkConstraintsTracker.replace(mConstrainedWorkSpecs);
}
}
}

这个方法内部调用mWorkManagerImpl.startWork

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public void startWork(@NonNull String workSpecId) {
startWork(workSpecId, null);
}

继续调用startWork

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public void startWork(
@NonNull String workSpecId,
@Nullable WorkerParameters.RuntimeExtras runtimeExtras) {
mWorkTaskExecutor
.executeOnBackgroundThread(
new StartWorkRunnable(this, workSpecId, runtimeExtras));
}

然后执行StartWorkRunnablerun方法

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public void run() {
mWorkManagerImpl.getProcessor().startWork(mWorkSpecId, mRuntimeExtras);
}

调用Processor的startWork方法

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public boolean startWork(
@NonNull String id,
@Nullable WorkerParameters.RuntimeExtras runtimeExtras) {

WorkerWrapper workWrapper;
synchronized (mLock) {
// Work may get triggered multiple times if they have passing constraints
// and new work with those constraints are added.
if (mEnqueuedWorkMap.containsKey(id)) {
Logger.get().debug(
TAG,
String.format("Work %s is already enqueued for processing", id));
return false;
}

workWrapper =
new WorkerWrapper.Builder(
mAppContext,
mConfiguration,
mWorkTaskExecutor,
this,
mWorkDatabase,
id)
.withSchedulers(mSchedulers)
.withRuntimeExtras(runtimeExtras)
.build();
ListenableFuture<Boolean> future = workWrapper.getFuture();
future.addListener(
new FutureListener(this, id, future),
mWorkTaskExecutor.getMainThreadExecutor());
mEnqueuedWorkMap.put(id, workWrapper);
}
mWorkTaskExecutor.getBackgroundExecutor().execute(workWrapper);
Logger.get().debug(TAG, String.format("%s: processing %s", getClass().getSimpleName(), id));
return true;
}

这个方法里会调用WorkerWrapperrun方法

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public void run() {
mTags = mWorkTagDao.getTagsForWorkSpecId(mWorkSpecId);
mWorkDescription = createWorkDescription(mTags);
runWorker();
}

调用runWorker

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private void runWorker() {
//...
mWorkTaskExecutor.getMainThreadExecutor()
.execute(new Runnable() {
@Override
public void run() {
try {
Logger.get().debug(TAG, String.format("Starting work for %s",
mWorkSpec.workerClassName));
mInnerFuture = mWorker.startWork();
future.setFuture(mInnerFuture);
} catch (Throwable e) {
future.setException(e);
}

}
});
//...
}

执行mWorker.startWork()方法,它的实现在Worker中

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public final @NonNull ListenableFuture<Result> startWork() {
mFuture = SettableFuture.create();
getBackgroundExecutor().execute(new Runnable() {
@Override
public void run() {
try {
Result result = doWork();
mFuture.set(result);
} catch (Throwable throwable) {
mFuture.setException(throwable);
}

}
});
return mFuture;
}

调用doWork()方法,然后调用到我们自定义的类中重写的doWork方法

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public Result doWork() {
Log.i(MainActivity.TAG, "doWork");
return Result.success();
}

附一张简单的时序图

WorkManager时序图

文章作者: milovetingting
文章链接: http://www.milovetingting.cn/2020/04/20/Android/Jetpack%E5%AD%A6%E4%B9%A0-WorkManager/
版权声明: 本博客所有文章除特别声明外,均采用 CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 许可协议。转载请注明来自 milovetingting

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